Clione antarctica
(Smith, 1902)

Family: Clionidae


Southern Hemisphere in polar and cold temperate waters - Pelagic

Clione limacina was previously considered to have a bipolar distribution but Gilmer & Lalli (1990) show many internal and external differences between northern and southern hemisphere populations and consider the southern populations should be considered a distinct species, C. antarctica (Smith, 1902).

See message describing how an amphipod holds an animal of C. antarctica on its back to protect it from fish predation.

  • Bryan, P. J., Yoshida, W. Y., McClintock, J. B., and Baker, B. J. (1995) Ecological role for pteroenone, a novel antifeedant from the conspicuous antarctic pteropod Clione antarctica (Gymnosomata: Gastropoda) . Marine Biology, 122: 271-277.
  • Gilmer, R.W. & Lalli, C.M. (1990) Bipolar variation in Clione, a gymnosomatous pteropod. Am. Malacol. Union Bull. 8(1): 67-75.
  • Lalli, C.M. & Gilmer, R.W. (1989) Pelagic Snails. The biology of holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California.
  • Morton, J.E. (1958): Observations on the gymnosomatous pteropod Clione limacina (Phipps). Journal of the Marine Biological Association, United Kingdom, 37: 287-297.
  • Yoshida, W. Y., Bryan, P. J., Baker, B. J., and McClintock, J. B. (1995) Pteroenone: A Defensive Metabolite of the Abducted Antarctic Pteropod Clione antarctica. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 60: 780-782.
Authorship details
Rudman, W.B., 2006 (January 11) Clione antarctica (Smith, 1902). [In] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from

Related messages

  1. Amphipod uses Clione for defence
    From: Roman Lustrik, January 12, 2006

Show factsheet and all related messages