Southern Hemisphere in polar and cold temperate waters - Pelagic
Clione limacina was previously considered to have a bipolar distribution but Gilmer & Lalli (1990) show many internal and external differences between northern and southern hemisphere populations and consider the southern populations should be considered a distinct species, C. antarctica (Smith, 1902).
See message describing how an amphipod holds an animal of C. antarctica on its back to protect it from fish predation.
Bryan, P. J., Yoshida, W. Y., McClintock, J. B., and Baker, B. J. (1995) Ecological role for pteroenone, a novel antifeedant from the conspicuous antarctic pteropod Clione antarctica (Gymnosomata: Gastropoda) . Marine Biology, 122: 271-277.
Gilmer, R.W. & Lalli, C.M. (1990) Bipolar variation in Clione, a gymnosomatous pteropod. Am. Malacol. Union Bull. 8(1): 67-75.
Lalli, C.M. & Gilmer, R.W. (1989) Pelagic Snails. The biology of holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California.
Morton, J.E. (1958): Observations on the gymnosomatous pteropod Clione limacina (Phipps). Journal of the Marine Biological Association, United Kingdom, 37: 287-297.
Yoshida, W. Y., Bryan, P. J., Baker, B. J., and McClintock, J. B. (1995) Pteroenone: A Defensive Metabolite of the Abducted Antarctic Pteropod Clione antarctica. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 60: 780-782.
Rudman, W.B., 2006 (January 11) Clione antarctica (Smith, 1902). [In] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/factsheet/clioanta
Amphipod uses Clione for defence
From: Roman Lustrik, January 12, 2006